Study raises health concerns about shower curtains

Monday, June 16, 2008 

The Canadian Environmental Law Assocation and the Canadian organization Environmental Defence jointly conducted a study that was released to the public on Thursday, saying that chemicals released by new vinyl curtains may pose a significant health risk.

The study noted that many shower curtains contain more than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phthalates and organotins, some of which may be released into the air when first taken from a package. These chemicals, responsible for the characteristic smell of new vinyl, may cause damage to kidneys, the liver and the central nervous systems, respiratory problems, nausea, headaches and loss off coordination, according to the report.

These vinyl curtains are also said to contain traces of metals like lead, cadmium and mercury.

Jennifer Foulds of Environmental Defence advises consumers to seek alternatives to new vinyl products such as shower curtains and table cloths. Older products are thought to be safe, as they have already released most of the allegedly dangerous chemicals.

Critics of the study have called it “fear-mongering”, and some health professionals agree that the risk is being overblown. Warren Foster, a professor in the obstetrics and gynecology department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario points out that, “the difference between hazard and risk is great, and without knowing the actual human exposure, it’s premature to make any judgement.”

Foster further commented that the study was not performed in a rigorous manner by not having controls or random sampling.

Five brands of shower curtain were examined in the study; they were purchased from American stores including Bed Bath & Beyond, Kmart, Sears, Target and Wal-Mart. Curtains of the same brand are also available in major Canadian stores.

Marion Axmith, director general of the Vinyl Council of Canada calls the report a “blatant attempt to manipulate consumers and retailers into thinking shower curtains pose a danger, and they don’t.” She noted that, “as far as we know, nobody’s ever been harmed by a shower curtain.”

Vinyl has long been a point of dispute between environmentalists and those in the chemical industry. A chemical used to make vinyl is known to be a risk for liver and other cancers for chemical plant workers, and the phthalates in vinyl products have been linked to interference with normal male hormone production.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government. It is one of five civilian U.S. international broadcasters working under the umbrella of the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). VOA provides programming for broadcast on radio, TV and the internet outside of the U.S., in 43 languages. VOA produces about 1,500 hours of news and feature programming each week for an estimated global audience of 123 million people, “to promote freedom and democracy and to enhance understanding through multimedia communication of accurate, objective, and balanced news, information and other programming about America and the world to audiences overseas.”[1] Its day-to-day operations are supported by the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB).

A 1976 law signed by President Gerald Ford requires VOA to “serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news.”[2] The VOA Charter states: “VOA news will be accurate, objective and comprehensive.”[2] VOA radio and television broadcasts are distributed by satellite, cable and on FM, AM, and shortwave radio frequencies. They are streamed on individual language service websites, social media sites and mobile platforms. VOA has more than 1,200 affiliate and contract agreements with radio and television stations and cable networks worldwide.

One of VOA’s radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994. Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, Liberia, Costa Rica, and Belize.[citation needed]

Currently, the VOA and the IBB continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at one site in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina. They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, as other radio stations on US soil are required by FCC rules.[citation needed] The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé for the VoA.[citation needed]

The Voice of America is fully funded by the U.S. taxpayers. Congress appropriates funds annually. VOA’s FY 2010 budget estimate was $206.5 million.[citation needed]

The Voice of America currently broadcasts in 45 languages (TV marked with an asterisk):

The number of languages broadcast and the number of hours broadcast in each language vary according to the priorities of the United States Government and the world situation. In 2001, according to an International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) fact sheet, VOA broadcast in 53 languages, with 12 televised.[3] For example, in July 2007, VOA added 30 minutes to its daily Somali radio broadcast, providing a full hour of live, up-to-the-minute news and information to listeners.[4] VOA estimates it produces 1,500 hours of programming each week to an audience of 123 million[5]

The Voice of America has been a part of several agencies:

From 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. The VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, the VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG.[6] The BBG was established as a buffer to protect VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of VOA.[7]

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands.[8] The National Broadcasting Company’s International, or White Network, which broadcast in six languages,[9] The Columbia Broadcasting System, whose Latin American international network consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries,[10] as well as the Crosley Company in Cincinnati, Ohio, had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s. There were fewer than 12 transmitters, however.[11]

In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:

A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service.[12]

Washington observers felt this policy was to enforce the State Department’s Good Neighbor Policy but many broadcasters felt that this was an attempt to direct censorship.[13]

In 1940, the Office of the Coordinator of Interamerican Affairs, a semi-independent agency of the U.S. State Department headed by Nelson Rockefeller, began operations. Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda.[14] Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news.[8]

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government’s Office of the Coordinator of Information began providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis.[15] Direct programming began shortly after the United States’ entry into the war. The first live broadcast to Germany, called Stimmen aus Amerika (“Voices from America”) took place on Feb 1, 1942. It was introduced by “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” and included the pledge: “Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war. . . . The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth.”[16]

The Office of War Information took over VOA’s operations when it was formed in mid-1942. The VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe.[17]

Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines.[18]

By the end of the war, VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages.[19] Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming.[20]

About half of VOA’s services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945.[21] In late 1945, VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

In 1947, VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russian under the pretext of countering “more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies” on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to “Cold War Propaganda” by John B. Whitton.[22] The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949.[22]

Charles W. Thayer headed VOA in 1948–49.

Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of the Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.

The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958.[23]

In 1952, the Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Russia and its allies. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Control of the VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953.[24] to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People’s Republic of China (PRC). In the 1980s, the USIA established the WORLDNET satellite television service, and in 2004 WORLDNET was merged into VOA.

During the 1950s and 1960s, VOA broadcast American jazz, which was highly popular worldwide. For example, a program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, along with special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department.[25]

Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries’ governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts’ actual impact. For example, in 1956, Poland stopped jamming VOA, but Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. and Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976.[26] However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies.[27] The People’s Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts.[28] Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal.[29] David Jackson, former director of the Voice of America, noted “The North Korean government doesn’t jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They’re very resourceful.”[30]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, VOA covered some of the era’s most important news including Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, and Neil Armstrong’s first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.

In the early 1980s, VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.

In September 1980, VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.

In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as “EuroFax”) 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January, 1997 as a cost-cutting measure. Today, stations are offered the VOA Music Mix service.

In 1989, Voice of America expanded Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country, accurately about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.

Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.

In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL.[7]

In 1994, President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.

In 1994, the Voice of America became the first[31] broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet. Content in English and 44 other languages is currently available online through a distributed network of commercial providers, using more than 20,000 servers across 71 countries. Since many listeners in Africa and other areas still receive much of their information via radio and have only limited access to computers, VOA continues to maintain regular shortwave-radio broadcasts.

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins.

In September 2010, VOA launched its radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information.[32]

In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by Voice of America’s broadcasts of commemorations for who committed suicide in political self-immolation. VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report.[33]

Under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act of 1948, the Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens until July 2013.[34] The intent of the legislation was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by its own government.[35] Although VOA does not broadcast domestically, Americans can access the programs through shortwave and streaming audio over the Internet.

All text, audio, and video material produced exclusively by the Voice of America is public domain.[36]

Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Harry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization’s mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow.[37] On July 12, 1976, the principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:

The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies.[2]

According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event.[38]

The Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), a bipartisan panel of eight private citizens appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U.S. Senate (the U.S. Secretary of State is an ex officio member of the Board), is the oversight body for official U.S. international broadcasts by both federal agencies and government-funded corporations. In addition to VOA, these include the Office of Cuba Broadcasting (OCB, which includes Radio and TV Marti) and grantee corporations: the Middle East Broadcasting Network (MBN, which includes Radio Sawa and Al Hurra television in Arabic); Radio Farda (in Persian) for Iran; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia, which are aimed at the ex-communist states and countries under oppressive regimes in Asia. In recent years, VOA has expanded its television coverage to many areas of the world. This governing body was established in 1993 to replace the Board for International Broadcasters, which was created in 1973 to manage broadcasting companies previously funded by the CIA.[7]

Many Voice of America announcers, such as Willis Conover, host of Jazz USA, Pat Gates, host of the Breakfast Show in the 1960s, and Judy Massa, noted country music expert and host of Country Music U.S.A., became worldwide celebrities, although not necessarily in the United States.

The Voice of America headquarters is located at 330 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC, 20237, U.S.

The Voice of America’s Urdu-language program Khabron Se Aage (Beyond the Headlines) is telecast in Pakistan by Express News. Earlier The Voice of America’s Urdu was telecast by GEO News, VOA’s affiliate and one of the country’s most popular stations. Voice of America pays an undisclosed amount of money to GEO TV to telecast its broadcast but in spite of this arrangement has been forced to take off many of its programs on numerous occasions due to conflicts with the GEO TV management. This half-hour program features reports on politics, social issues, science, sports, culture, entertainment, and other issues of interest to Pakistanis as seen by the US government.

In 1996, the U.S.’s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by VOA, 667 hpw by RFE/RL, and 162 hpw by Radio Marti.

Source: International Broadcast Audience Research, June 1996

The list includes about a quarter of the world’s external broadcasters whose output is both publicly funded and worldwide. Among those excluded are Taiwan, Vietnam, South Korea and various international commercial and religious stations.


Voice of America’s central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of the VOA’s 44 other radio broadcast languages, 25 of which are also broadcast on television.

In late 2005, VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a “virtual” office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

Many of the radio and television broadcasts are available through VOA’s website.[39]

While VOA was, until 2013, prohibited by the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 from broadcasting within the U.S., people in the U.S. are able to hear the hourly newscasts online. These are provided in 5-minute clips every hour from their website.[40]

Voice of America relays and simulcasts on Radio Australia for digital radio.

In Focus is a 30-minute daily TV magazine that brings information about Africa, the United States, and the world to viewers across Africa. It is scheduled Monday through Friday. In Focus features interviews with newsmakers, analysts, American and African government officials and everyday citizens presenting a variety of opinions on issues affecting the African continent. The program showcases stories about Africa, Diaspora topics, African-American interests and immigration, pop culture, box office hits, music, sports, and highlights from Hollywood round out the program. Contributor Linord Moudou reports on timely and practical health news and has conversations with doctors and expertise on African health issues including malaria, meningitis, measles and polio.[41]

Straight Talk Africa is an international call-in talk show hosted by Shaka Ssali which airs on Wednesdays. Shaka and his guests discuss topics of special interest to Africans, including politics, economic development, press freedom, health, social issues and conflict resolution.[42]

The Link is VOA’s weekly look at breaking trends on the Internet. The program examines up and coming trends and ideas online.[43]

Money in Motion is a program that looks at business stories from around the world that have global effects. The program is scheduled for Fridays.[44]

Going Green is a program that explores the new trends and technologies in environmental science and services. It is scheduled daily.[45][not in citation given]

VOA produces news, human interest, and short fiction in Special English, which is spoken more slowly and with a smaller vocabulary than regular programming, so it is easier for intermediate learners to understand.[46]

This is a Voice of America program, started in 2012, which broadcasts digital text and images via shortwave radiograms.[47] This digital stream can be decoded with software of the Fldigi family.

Effective July 1, 2014, VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions to East Asia and South Asia and reduced transmission time available for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia.[48]

Various sources[51][52][53][54] consider Voice of America an instrument of the United States’ propaganda campaigns.

The Cuban government and allied critics have suggested that the U.S. government violates national sovereignty by broadcasting to their countries,[55] despite Cuba’s own broadcasts to the US and elsewhere. This argument has been used to justify open attempts by the Cuban government to jam VOA broadcasts,[56][57][58] as well as respond with equally powerful shortwave transmissions of English-language political broadcasts and communiques directed at the United States. Time interval signals identical to those used by Radio Havana Cuba have also been detected in coded numbers station broadcasts that are allegedly linked to espionage activity in the U.S.[59]

Recently,[when?] news media have reported that VOA has for years been paying mainstream media journalists to appear on VOA shows, although such practices are relatively common worldwide for media programs. According to El Nuevo Herald and the Miami Herald, these include: David Lightman, the Hartford Courant’s Washington bureau chief; Tom DeFrank, head of the New York Daily News’ Washington office; Helle Dale, a former director of the opinion pages of the Washington Times; and Georgie Anne Geyer, a nationally syndicated columnist.[60]

In response, spokesmen for the Broadcasting Board of Governors told the newspaper El Nuevo Herald that such payments do not pose a conflict of interest. “For decades, for many years, some of the most respectable journalists in the country have received payments to participate in programs of the Voice of America,” one of the spokesmen, Larry Hart, told El Nuevo Herald.[60]

In late September 2001, VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush’s post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University, and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan’s anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views. In response, reporters and editors argued for VOA’s editorial independence from its governors. The VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon’s Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.

On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on Voice of America’s Persian service. VOA introduced Rigi as “the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement”.[61] The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government.[62][63][64] Jundullah is a Sunni Islamist militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion.[65][66]

In January 2008, Ethiopia was accused of jamming the VOA Amharic and Oromifa programs.[67] The government denied the accusations claiming technical difficulties as the cause of radio disruptions.

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Cv Writing Is Not The Rocket Science

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Submitted by: Goldberg Bryan

A good CV is an important component of the job hunting venture; an impressive CV can grant you a job of your dreams. It is enormously significant that CV should be perfect and without having any lacking aspect as it is the ambassador of your professional expertise and capabilities so, to leave a strong impression on the prospective employers a job seeker must understand its significance and its worth.Because of the highly competitive market, it is very essential to devote complete attentions to CV writing task. There are several certificate courses to learn CV editing and writing but people are already preoccupied with various things,how they can take out extra time for this knowledge sphere.Undoubtedly, it is an art and quite technical sort of job but there are million of websites and web services that can give a better understanding of related requirements and give you a viable mean to get this job done by your own.

A CV is a document that should not go beyond one or more than two pages so, the primary issue that has to be carefully considered is your CV should be short, precise, simple and to the point. Every body knows that a CV does not receive more than 30 seconds by a recruiter, due to this fact information included in the document should be logical, clear and short to depict a clear idea about candidate. Having a good CV is important as it facilitates you to acquire a job of your own choice. It acts like a facilitator that facilitates your job quest and helps you to get a better employment opportunity. It is a marketing tool that promotes your abilities and presents them to recruiters in a convincing and impressive way.

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CV is a formal document, during CV writing process try to avoid fleshy fonts and images. It can be supportive if you are applying for a creative position like for a magazine, advertising firm or publisher. There are some minor things that have to be carefully examined while writing a CV like grammatical errors, spelling mistakes and punctuation errors because these flaws make a negative impact on recruiter and show your insincerity towards the most imperative document of your career.Before sending your CV, it is better to revise it with critical eyes or ask your friend or colleague to do it if you think you cannot identify any error. CV writing should be in a readable manner,a

eviation usage is not appreciable in CV writing because this document is assessed by HR department and they might not much acquainted with technical term and a

eviation in different industries.

Many CV formats that are prevailed in the market must use according to the job requirements and make sure you prefer the most appropriate format that best suit with your skills and experience. It can be chronological, functional, combination or targeted. While dealing with your document, try to select the one that highlights your strengths and proficiencies. Do not emphasize on your weaker aspects as it could slow down the pace of your job search process. If you haven t much experience of this sort of writing, you can take the help of CV templates that are easily available on internet.

About the Author: Bryan Goldberg is a professional resume writer and is highly passionate about writing instructive articles about CV writing. For more information about resume writing services, be sure to visit



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Dell delays filing of financials as accounting investigation continues

Friday, March 30, 2007 

Dell Inc., a global leader in computer hardware manufacturing and sales, announced yesterday that it will delay filing of its annual performance report, the Form 10-K, required for compliance with U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Nasdaq listing rules.

In a press release, Dell explained that an audit committee of the company’s board of directors is carrying out an investigation into accounting and financial reporting issues. The company stated that it would delay filing of the 10-K since the investigation had not been completed.

The internal investigation has found evidence of accounting errors, misconduct, and deficiencies in areas of financial control.

The chairman of Dell’s audit committee, Thomas Luce III, indicated that the delay in filing would extend past the April 3, 2007 deadline as well as an April 18, 2007 extension date. “As we move toward the conclusion of our investigation, we are committing the time and resources required to ensure a thorough and comprehensive review and resolution of all identified issues and the implementation of appropriate remedial measures,” said Luce.

The investigation is to determine whether the restatement of any financial disclosures are warranted, based on the accounting errors identified. The probe will also assess whether there are deficiencies in Dell’s internal control over financial reporting.

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Dell delays filing of financials as accounting investigation continues

Friday, March 30, 2007 

Dell Inc., a global leader in computer hardware manufacturing and sales, announced yesterday that it will delay filing of its annual performance report, the Form 10-K, required for compliance with U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Nasdaq listing rules.

In a press release, Dell explained that an audit committee of the company’s board of directors is carrying out an investigation into accounting and financial reporting issues. The company stated that it would delay filing of the 10-K since the investigation had not been completed.

The internal investigation has found evidence of accounting errors, misconduct, and deficiencies in areas of financial control.

The chairman of Dell’s audit committee, Thomas Luce III, indicated that the delay in filing would extend past the April 3, 2007 deadline as well as an April 18, 2007 extension date. “As we move toward the conclusion of our investigation, we are committing the time and resources required to ensure a thorough and comprehensive review and resolution of all identified issues and the implementation of appropriate remedial measures,” said Luce.

The investigation is to determine whether the restatement of any financial disclosures are warranted, based on the accounting errors identified. The probe will also assess whether there are deficiencies in Dell’s internal control over financial reporting.

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US federal agents raid strip club empire in Washington state

Tuesday, June 3, 2008 

Yesterday, federal agents, assisted by local police, raided the businesses, homes, and offices of Frank Colacurcio Sr., and his son, Frank Junior in Washington, in the United States Pacific Northwest. Approximately 50 years after federal authorities first labeled Colacurcio Sr. as an organized crime figure, they allege the 90-year-old strip club magnate and convicted racketeer is still active in violating the law. Local police with federal authorities enacted their raids in three separate counties along Puget Sound. Local police have described it as the most significant probe into organized crime in Seattle, Washington’s history. The Colacurcios face allegations that include evidence of prostitution, money laundering and mail fraud.

According to Robbie Burroughs of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), court documents have named the clubs “Rick’s” in Seattle, “Sugar’s” in Shoreline, “Fox’s” in Parkland, and “Honey’s” in Everett, as well as the businesses “Talents West” talent agency and “Accurate Bookkeeping” in Seattle. The Colacurcios themselves were named as subjects of the investigation and raids. The Federal government additionally enacted a restraining order, unusually, as evidence in similar investigations is normally not made public prior to any indictments being issued. The restraining order, which can only be contested for ten days, bars the Colacurcios or their agents from selling, reducing the value of, or transferring three strip clubs, Rick’s, Sugar’s, and Honey’s, or the related hiring and bookkeeping offices.

Seattle U.S. Attorney Jeff Sullivan has stated he plans to pursue the forfeiture of all the properties and businesses under the federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). “For far too long, the Colacurcios’ organization has made big money operating their clubs as fronts for prostitution,” he said. “The Colacurcios have designed the clubs, the payment methods and the policies that encourage prostitution and to ensure they are the ones getting rich off these illegal sex acts.”

As of June 3, neither the Colacurcios nor their attorneys had spoken with the media or in public about the raids and investigation.

The Colacurcios have a long history involving law enforcement. Frank Sr. was convicted in the 1940s for having sexual relations with a 16-year old girl. In 1957, a United States Senate hearing on organized crime identified him as a racketeer. In 1971 he was convicted on the federal level of running a bingo racket, and received a three year sentence. In the mid-70s, he served two years in custody for a tax evasion that was overturned in an appeal. In 1981, he received a conviction for tax fraud from skimming profits on a night club, and in 1991 he and his son, Frank Jr., were convicted of a similar crime for clubs they ran in Alaska.

In January 2008, they both plead guilty for their role in Seattle’s “Strippergate” campaign-financing scandal which erupted in 2003. The scandal involved funnelling illegal campaign finances through various associates to the re-election campaigns of various Seattle City Council members, before a zoning election for a club they owned. The event is what led to the current raids and investigations.

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Investing In The Stock Market A Beginner S Help

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Submitted by: John Howell

If you were a beginner in stock market investing, the first and the best step would be to educate yourself about the various aspects of stock investing. You can get a lot of information at free of cost if you log on to the Internet. There are numerous websites, which are either owned by the stock brokers or voluntary organizations that provide all the preliminary and advanced information about investing in stock market.

You must acquire some quantum of theoretical knowledge about stock analysis both at fundamental and technical levels.

Fundamental analysis is the process of looking at a business at the basic or fundamental level in finance. Fundamental analysis involves the understanding of how much money a company is presently making and what are its future prospects.

Fundamental analysis also involves understanding the income and financial statements of the company whose shares you intend to buy. It helps you understand its management and competitive advantages with the help of historical and present data.

Technical analysis studies the supply and demand position of a stock in a market in an attempt to determine its direction and future trend. In other words, technical analysis attempts to understand the emotions in the market by studying the market itself, as opposed to its components. If you understand the benefits and limitations of technical analysis, it can give you a new set of tools or skills that will enable you to be a better trader or investor.

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It must, however, be understood that no amount of theoretical knowledge is going to make you successful in any field including stock investing. You need practical, hands on experience in any job that you take up.

You need to be cautious stock investor in the beginning. Stock market investment is a risky business. The element of risk can be substantially reduced if the investors take informed decision.

Open your stock trading account with a stockbroker who charges low commissions and provides efficient customer support services.

There are stockbrokers, who allow you to invest as low as $1.50 to $3 on equity trades. It would not be painful to risk such small amounts. You earn while you learn form your mistakes, which are bound to occur initially but don t matter much financially.

You can invest in shares of high value stocks by purchasing fractional shares. You can buy as little as 0.01 shares of a stock. Fractional investments can give you the ultimate flexibility in building your portfolio. There are brokerages that enable you to sell your fractional shares real time for the low commissions. Fractional investments are available through scheduled investment plans.

With scheduled investments, you can build a custom portfolio of stocks and ETFs, set a dollar amount to be invested in the entire portfolio, and create an investment schedule to make one-time or recurring investments in your portfolio automatically.

ETFs are as good as equities. Investments in ETFs involve minimal risks and offer better chances of making sure profits.

You must also try to learn from those who have proved successful in stock investing.

It is said that two of the most successful investors in the history of stock market, Warren Buffet and Peter Lynch used just one trick that helped them set up records of 20% to 30% compounded earnings over long term.

Therefore you must follow this age-old axiom of keeping your investment simple. When you truly understand the implications of such a simple advice, you will find how beneficial it becomes for your portfolio.

Buffet advises the investors to write down a short paragraph mentioning their basic thesis of making investment. The thesis may be somewhat on the lines: I am buying 10,000 shares of Company XYZ at $25 per share because I believe (insert reason here such as profit will grow twice as fast as the current price-to-earnings ratio, hidden assets are on the balance sheet, there was a management change for the better, valuation is too low, etc.)

Thereafter keep monitoring the movement of the stock on the basis of your thesis.

A practical result would be that you would be separating chaff from the grains. You must guard yourself against the so-called financial wizards who trot out huge figures about millions of transactions and billions of sales to prove their point to be true.

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????? WebMoney ??????? ??????????? Forex

14 ?????? 2013

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«??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? Forex». ‘,

?????? ????? RegioNews ????? ?????????? ?a ?????? ???????? CC-BY-SA-3.0.

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Wikipedia:Village pump (technical)

AFDs that have been closed using class=”boilerplate metadata vfd” in the div are not displaying on the mobile version. Example Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Tube_Bar_prank_calls. The class used in {{Afd top}} is “boilerplate afd vfd xfd-closed” and these display ok. Anybody got any idea what it is about the former class that causes it not to display? SpinningSpark 02:13, 24 June 2014 (UTC)

I’ve configured phpMyAdmin so anyone can run SQL queries on their own. Enjoy! — Dispenser 00:04, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

It would be a good idea to have a tool by which users not very familiar with SQL or Labs can request queries to be run, provided it has human supervision, but that was just begging for trouble. — MPelletier (WMF) (talk) 00:28, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

So I take it that all issues have been addressed and we can reinstate this incredibly useful tool? — Dispenser 15:47, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

I would have though this obvious enough to go without saying, but I’ve added a point to the Tool Labs rules to reiterate common sense. — MPelletier (WMF) (talk) 15:11, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

Bigger screens, both on desktops & laptop, as well as mobile device have left images on foundation wikis looking rather small these days.

Based on research from the Analytics group “There are 15580 instances logged across 393 wikis in log.PrefUpdate_5563398″ to the preference that stores thumbnail default size. On english Wikipedia the current value is 220px for “default” sized thumbnail images, the size logged in and logged out users see if they haven’t manually changed their preference. Of the ~15k users who have changes this preference the trend is to set the preference to a larger size, usually 300px as seen by the graph included in the bug for this issue eventually I’d love for us to move to responsively sized images, but perhaps thats a seperate discussion.

As proposed this would change the default value for “Thumbnail size” which would affect logged out users, and users who had never modified the value of “Thumbnail size” in preferences.

I’d like to close this discussion by Wednesday July 16 2014

Jared Zimmerman (talk) 19:35, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

Make foundation wikis and mediawiki software thumbnail style images use 300px (rather than current default of 220px used by most sites) size based on user data provided by Analytics Team.

page width 800 px
thumbnail width 220 px

page width 800 px
thumbnail width 300 px

A4 print preview:
page width 800 px
thumbnail width 220 px

A4 print preview:
page width 800 px
thumbnail width 300 px

page width 800 px
thumbnail width 220 px

page width 800 px
thumbnail width 300 px

A larger format is appropriate is some situations. I could support the idea of offering two default sizes, if that is not a contradiction in terms, one for a “thumbnail” image (already much larger than the nail of most people’s thumbs – elephants don’t count), and one for an “expanded” or “prominent” image on the order of half the width of a desktop screen. ~ Ningauble (talk) 17:54, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

And no, I really do not think making all of the images larger by default is a satisfactory resolution for the need to make some of the images larger. I was specifically referring to situations where one-size-fits-all is not fitting. If this is too far off topic or outside the box in a discussion of what the single default size should be, then please disregard it. ~ Ningauble (talk) 13:20, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

Thank you everyone who added feedback, concerns, responses, and clarification. We appreciate your time and involvement. At this time I’d like to request an uninvolved 3rd party close and summarize the thread. Thank you again. Jared Zimmerman (talk) 06:00, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

This is a quick announcement that we’ve enabled a test of a new feature which asks anonymous editors to sign up for an account. This A/B test will last for one week from today.

If you’re interested, a specification of the new interface to view, including screenshots. There’s also a specification for the previous interface we tested, and you can check out our data analysis. If you want to test this out for yourself, I’d recommend viewing our beta testing wiki in an incognito browser (you may have try a couple times, since it’s fully randomized).

If you remember the previous thread about this, I should note that we fixed a bug which caused the popup to appear every time someone attempted to edit anonymously. It now only shows once per user.

If you’re curious about why we’re testing these changes, I’d recommend reading our blog post. Please ping me if you have any more questions, Steven Walling (WMF) • talk 00:17, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

Update: we’ve turned off the test now, so you should stop getting any signup invitations when anonymous, except for the odd caching issue. For the curious, results of the test will be posted here. Steven Walling (WMF) • talk 23:50, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

As noted above, “If you use references on a page, you will soon always see them at the bottom of the page, even if you forget to add the <references /> tag (or a template).”

This has been deployed and has a few issues:

More discussion at Help talk:Footnotes#Missing reference markup will no longer show an error. —  Gadget850 talk 11:08, 11 July 2014 (UTC)

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Can the auto system be upgraded to add a References section header, and keep the references section at the bottom? We are now getting talk pages, with no separation between one post and the ref-list, and another post is then added beneath it e.g. Talk:Soka Gakkai where it appears that the references relate to the post above them, although they don’t.

The current arrangement means that, althiough the list appears, someone has to go around and manually add the ==References== section header, which is also one of the most common misspellings (I have corrected “Refrences” at least once in 140 of the last 142 weeks, plus the corrections to “Refferences” “Referrences” and “Referneces”) – Arjayay (talk) 13:37, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

Wikipedia:List of Wikipedians by number of edits is supposed to update weekly, but it is now 17 days old. When will this be fixed for the editcountitis sufferers? — Djembayz (talk) 11:51, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

See the section title. I think the max length should be about twice as long as it currently is. Every time I couldn’t fit everything I wanted to say in an edit summary, it would have fit if the max limit was twice as high as it is now. Where is this limit actually specified anyway? Dustin (talk) 17:13, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? I very much agree we need more characters, often important information is left out of summaries because it does not fit

That being said I understand what is involved in changing the database schema of a table that has millions of entries and is replicated over many servers. It would require extensive downtime.

Though, there is nothing preventing a new table from being made to that the software will begin to use. An revision ID can be hard coded so the software knows to use the old table for any rev before that and the new one for all after.

An alternative to using a special rev as a border would be to put a special character in the old table(something that is not allowed in edit summaries) that tells the software to look in the new table to the longer summary. This would mean that regular sized edit summaries would be treated normal, and only long edit summaries would require a second lookup and take longer.

With a bit a creativity there is no reason we can’t manage larger edit summaries. Chillum 21:43, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

@WhatamIdoing: I think “Why was the database field made so small?” best summarizes part of my inquiry. Dustin (talk) 21:55, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

I’m ok with current field length, it’s really up to you to summarise in a couple words so that it’s not hard to follow an article history. Longer edit summaries would make it harder to follow (with my screen size even now many edit summaries do not fit one line in the history tab). –Gryllida (talk) 11:35, 13 July 2014 (UTC)

“Why was the database field made so small?” well… because someone thought it would be enough. Much alike 640K for ram, or 4.2 billion of Interernet addresses. —TheDJ (talk • contribs) 14:28, 13 July 2014 (UTC)

I think everyone misunderstood that bug: performing a schema change even on tables as large as revision is a PITA but doable, and was done before, so it’s not the reason why the change was repeatedly turned down by DBAs. The problem is that WMF uses a custom covering index on every column of revision table which means that the total size of a row is restricted by MariaDB/MySQL’s index limit. As a result, increasing rev_comment substaintially would require a drop of that index which will result in IO skyrocketing on MariaDB servers, affecting site performance. Max Semenik (talk) 23:14, 14 July 2014 (UTC)

Some solutions for shortening long summaries:

Not sure if all of these are good ideas or not, just brainstorming. Oiyarbepsy (talk) 05:51, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

See subject. If this is discussed elsewhere, please point me to it. Thanks. ?cobaltcigs 22:52, 13 July 2014 (UTC)

Is there some option (global preferences or some javascript code) to disable the Media Viewer on all wikis? –Edgars2007 (talk/contribs) 12:07, 14 July 2014 (UTC)

Another alternative:

Beat me, if it doesn’t work ;) –Hedonil (talk) 20:05, 14 July 2014 (UTC)

Recently (last two or three days), Wikipedia seems slow to load, and sometimes fails to load pages properly or at all. All other websites seem OK. Any known issues? (talk) 17:39, 14 July 2014 (UTC)

Could this be a template that got munged in some way and is not loading? BMK (talk) 22:01, 14 July 2014 (UTC)

(OP) Wikipedia seems back to normal for me too now. Nothing I’ve done… (talk) 20:32, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

For some days now, a number of tabs at the top of the first page of each Wiki article have been appearing flapped forward, obscuring the text, and they cannot be shifted. Can this be fixed, please? –P123ct1 (talk) 09:33, 15 July 2014 (UTC)

Did something change in recent months relating to the way MediaWiki handles [[w:(lang):Example]] links? Previously, [[w:de:Australien]] should have worked in exactly the same manner as [[:de:Australien]] to produce a link to this page, however it doesn’t seem to work anymore, for any non-English language code. For some reason, the en language code still works: w:en:Test and en:Test both do the same thing. –benlisquareT•C•E 17:45, 15 July 2014 (UTC)

This is now tracked as bug 68085, with a fix pending review. Matma Rex talk 23:05, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

When searching for articles where the title contains a dash (e.g. 2013–14 Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. season) but you type the article name in manually using a minus sign rather than a dash (e.g. 2013-14 Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. season) the article doesn’t appear anywhere near the top of the search list despite the fact that there is only one letter different in the search string. This ([9]) is the search with the dash and this ([10]) is the search with the minus sign. One solution is to create a redirect but surely the search tool could be a little more intelligent when most users don’t notice the difference between the minus and the dash and keyboards don’t include the dash. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Spudgfsh (talk • contribs) 20:43, 15 July 2014 (UTC)

Sigh. People will eventually recognize the wisdom of WP:Short horizontal line. Think there’s any chance of making it official policy?—Kww(talk) 14:14, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

It seems intuitive to me: Special:Email should redirect to Special:EmailUser. I was having a chat in IRC, on #wikipedia-en-help, and I asked a user to email me, and gave the wrong link. Redirects are cheap and this should save (some) time and confusion. I mean, who would you be emailing other than users? I was going to go to bugzilla but decided to get consensus first. Comments? Thanks, Lixxx235Got a complaint? 04:48, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

Rummaging through enwiki-20140707-category.sql, I discovered sixty entries that contain negative numbers in at least one of the fields counting the number of articles, categories and files in a given category.

A few of the categories don’t exist or have been deleted, but many of them look perfectly fine. Is this a feature or a bug? Paradoctor (talk) 10:05, 16 July 2014 (UTC)

Could anyone check whether this bug report is anything that needs fixing? I’m not sure if this is a bug in MediaWiki:Gadget-DRN-wizard.js, a brief glitch in the API, or a false alarm. At any rate, the DRN script seems to be working for me on IE. (The report claims it isn’t working in Firefox.) — Mr. Stradivarius ? talk ? 04:49, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

Further to recent discussion, about {{Authority control}}, it also appears that {{Commons category}} does not appear on our mobile view or app; and no doubt its sibling templates and others are similarly affected.

This will affect editors little, since most are likely to be working on in desktop-view, but a significant number of our readers are on mobile devices. Andy Mabbett (Pigsonthewing); Talk to Andy; Andy’s edits 13:45, 17 July 2014 (UTC)

Are there any known conflicts between HotCat and other gadgets? It hasn’t been working for me at all for many months now, but I never bothered to report it because it wasn’t (and isn’t) a very big deal. This is under Windows 7, Firefox 30 and the MonoBook skin. I looked at my preferences and it’s checked off. I unchecked, saved, rechecked and saved again, no difference. It’s not that HotCat doesn’t function, it’s that the HotCat (+)(-) etc. don’t even show up. I use HotCat regularly on Commons with the exact same set up, so I thought it might be something else I have installed here that’s not installed over there, and that maybe someone had already reported a problem. BMK (talk) 01:55, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

Is there a way to subst a redirect page? For example, if I try to subst State Route 10-Y (Virginia) into a page, what actually happens is that the redirect target – U.S. Route 19 in Virginia – gets substed. –NE2 02:31, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

The reason is for an AWB run to make redirects (in accordance with WP:USSH). For example, I can hack the regexes to create {{subst::State Route 10-Y (Virginia)}} on Virginia State Route 10-Y, but, as described, that doesn’t work. The alternative is to simply create the redirect to State Route 10-Y (Virginia) and let one of the double redirect bots run through and fix them. –NE2 04:52, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

Hi, I’m a newbie and I brought this up over in the Teahouse. They suggested I bring it here. I used “save as PDF” to download an article on the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. When I looked at the resulting PDF and compared to the live article, a number of citations were missing (13 cites on the PDF and 18 on the live article.) FYI the missing citations were not very recent additions. The entire list of citations on the PDF appear to be from a much older version of the article. I see you discussed a problem like this last year, but it doesn’t appear to be resolved so I figured I’d bring it to your attention. I was using a firefox browser. It happened on a Mac and a PC. Thanks Savannah38 (talk) 14:38, 18 July 2014 (UTC)


I ran a script search following the recent announcement by Brad Jorsch:

Found 3 matches:

–Krinkle (talk) 18:35, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

On the Sacchin dab page the last entry has a redlink. But if you click on you get (via a redirect) to an article. How so? DexDor (talk) 19:06, 18 July 2014 (UTC)

Guys, what is the RGB code for blue and red links? –Edgars2007 (talk/contribs) 08:31, 19 July 2014 (UTC)

I mostly edit from an iPad. So, a while back they switched in the mobile site by default. As it does not support admin tools I opted to go back to the desktop version. For some reason in the last 48 hours I keep getting sent to the mobile version at the start of each new session, even though I’m still logged in from before. I’ve searched my preferences and can’t find anything in there to deal with this. Is there a way to permanently disable the mobile site?

Also, I though maybe I’d try asking the devs over at the technical forum on meta and it seems SUL is not working over there. I navigated there from here and when I got there I was not logged in and for some reason it is not accepting the password I use here. I may have had a separate password over there in the pre-SUL days but I certainly don’t remember what it was now. Beeblebrox (talk) 21:05, 19 July 2014 (UTC)

The cite tools don’t work on safari or chrome on the iPad, the window pops up but the fields are not editable. Anyone else have this issue? GimliDotNet (Speak to me,Stuff I’ve done) 21:10, 19 July 2014 (UTC)

[12] versus [13] Where did it go?? — Kendrick7talk 02:56, 20 July 2014 (UTC)

Greetings, (I have forgotten), could someone provide me the page link that controls notifications above watchlist (example: A new discussion is taking place on ABC. [dismiss]). Thanks Tito?Dutta 05:13, 20 July 2014 (UTC)

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Discussion Dossier:Crise des CDS

Désolé Bapti pour mes multiples modifications dans ce dossier. Elles nuisent à la lisibilité des contributeurs. C’est donc ma dernière intervention, RD –Eurobas 13 octobre 2008 à 06:37 (UTC)

De nombreux CDS ont désormais une valeur nulle au bilan des banques et assurances. Une vraie problématique sur les CDS est de savoir comment sont provisionnés ces actifs qui peuvent devenir négatifs. En clair, le résultat d’une police d’assurance peut se transformer en perte, non ? –Eurobas 16 décembre 2008 à 15:14 (UTC)

Le 12 décembre, l’Allemagne boucle difficilement l’émission d’une dette à deux ans de 7 milliards de dollars. Alors que les intérêts des obligations publiques sont au plus bas, le risque de non-remboursement des états augmente : pour assurer 10 000 dollars de dette britannique, il fallait payer moins de 9 dollars en janvier 2008, 57,40 dollars au mois de novembre 2008, et 113,40 dollars aujourd’hui.[1]

Pratiquement inexistant en 2002, le marché des swaps de défaut s’est développé à un rythme extrêmement rapide pour atteindre, en 2007, un volume de 58 000 milliards de dollars en termes de montant notionnel. En achetant un contrat pour se protéger du risque sur une obligation donnée, les intervenants de marché pensaient être à l’abri, dans une large mesure, du risque de défaut de l’émetteur. Toutefois, cette protection s’est avérée souvent défaillante lorsque la crise financière s’est manifestée. De fait, durant la phase d’expansion soutenue ayant précédé l’apparition des turbulences, le fonctionnement du marché des swaps de défaut en période de crise n’avait pas été encore testé. –Eurobas 19 janvier 2009 à 21:57 (UTC)

Force est rappeler que les réserves d’or de l’ensemble des banques centrales s’élèvent à 30000 tonnes depuis 1945. Les banques centrales européennes détiennent près de la moitié du stock, soit 14047 tonnes, et les Etats-Unis 8148 tonnes en 2004[2]. D’après ses comptes annuels publiés en juin 2008, la Banque de France détient 2594 tonnes d’or.

L’argent est devenu un métal rare dont le cours boursier a étrangement plongé depuis 2008. Or la production est inférieure d’un tiers à la consommation d’argent par les industries. Et les réserves minières mondiales seront épuisées en moins d’une décennie. CQFD

En 2007, près de 10000 hedge funds géraient environ 1760 milliards de dollars dans le monde. Aujourd’hui, les professionnels estiment que 20 à 30% de ces fonds vont faire faillite. Qualifiés de “trous noirs” de la finance, 30 à 50 de ces centres offshore cultivent le secret bancaire et refusent toute demande de coopération avec les administrations fiscales, boursières ou judiciaires de leurs partenaires. La nouveauté de cette crise est que les pertes sont supportées par les états et que les profits semblent transférés dans les paradis fiscaux dits offshore.

Jacques Attali estime que les risques de laisser les gens s’endetter sur des valeurs fictives sont la dénonciation de complots, une grande inflation pour faire disparaitre les dettes et des tensions militaires pour contraindre les gens à accepter plus d’austérité et d’impôts.

Certaines critiques suspectent les 3 agences de notation privées Moody’s, Standard and Poor’s et Fitch Ratings d’avoir côté les titres CDS au plus haut pour se rémunérer sur le montant de l’émission obtenue d’environ 1%. Les agences de notation Fitch Ratings et Moody’s estiment que le pourcentage de défaillance sur les dettes d’entreprise devrait atteindre 4 à 5 %[3]

Nouriel Roubini prédit que la crise financière pourrait coûter $3 600 milliards à l’ensemble des institutions financières faisant affaire aux États-Unis. A titre de comparaison, l’ensemble du système bancaire américain détient environ 1 400 milliards USD en capital[4]. Et Barack Obama programme un plan de relance économique evalué à $1.2 Trillion[5]

En effet, un atterrissage en douceur est difficile du fait que :

Selon Lyndon LaRouche évalue la valeur nominale des produits dérivés échangés annuellement à travers le monde à 1,4 million de milliards de dollars en 2008, soit 1400 Trillions. Cette bulle boursière continuera de croitre tant que les produits dérivés ne sont pas effacés des livres de comptes[6].

Cette rubrique est trop longue. Une synthèse en 1 page est nécessaire –Eurobas 23 février 2009 à 14:49 (UTC)

Historiquement, la Société Générale a titrisé une cinquantaine de milliards d’euros de CDS en 2006 ; elle se félicite d’avoir gagné 2,1 milliards d’euros sur ses « credit portfolio management » en 2008. Le portefeuille de BNP Paribas et du Crédit Agricole atteignait une vingtaine de milliards à la même époque en France.

Morgan Stanley estime que les états de la zone euro solliciteront le marché obligataire à hauteur de 631 milliards d’euros en 2008, puis 765 milliards en 2009. Tandis que cette augmentation est d’environ 20%, l’état fédéral américain a prévu de lever 550 milliards de dollars entre octobre et décembre 2008.

Le volume des émissions de CDS en Europe est quasiment nul avec 40 milliards d’euros au premier trimestre 2008, contre près de 130 milliards un an plus tôt. Une grande part de cette “titrisation” est utilisée pour obtenir des financements auprès des banques centrales. Lancé en France courant novembre 2007, le triplement des CFD a été observé en octobre 2008 avec un volume de 5,3 milliards d’euros.

Par ailleurs, les finances publiques risquent d’être asséchées sous l’effet de quatre facteurs :

Selon le « Prix Nobel » d’économie Maurice Allais, la création monétaire ex nihilo actuelle par le système bancaire est identique à la création de monnaie par des faux-monnayeurs[12]… sans aucune exagération, le mécanisme actuel de la création de monnaie par le crédit est certainement le « cancer » qui ronge irrémédiablement les économies de marchés de propriété privée[13]. Avec 40 pages de graphiques, il postule que la libéralisation totale des échanges et des mouvements de capitaux n’est souhaitable que dans le cadre d’ensembles régionaux groupant des pays économiquement, politiquement et socialement comparables[14].

Inexistant avant 1997, le montant des encours notionels de dérivés de crédit a atteint 600 milliards en 1999, 4479 milliards mi-2004 et 51095 mi-2007[15].

Dans son rapport financier annuel 2008[16], BNP Paribas précise que “le montant notionnel des instruments financiers dérivés ne constitue qu’une indication de volume de l’activité de BNP Paribas SA sur les marchés d’instruments financiers et ne reflète pas les risques de marché attachés à ces instruments.” Le portefeuille de transaction de ces instruments financiers à terme s’élève à 36824 milliards d’euros (dont 34% réalisés au 31/12/2008). La stratégie de couverture par des instruments financiers dérivés (CDS) conclues de gré à gré s’établit à 396 milliards d’euros au 31 décembre 2008.

Face à la crise, les États-Unis et l’Angleterre ont officiellement annoncé faire marcher la planche à billets. La création monétaire pour compenser les “titres pourris” des banques est de 21000 milliards de dollars en mars 2009 selon le mouvement LaRouche.

Depuis 18 mois, la BCE a mené une politique d’expansion monétaire et son bilan a augmenté de 40% depuis août 2008. Avec plus de 2000 milliards d’euros, il dépasse même celui de la Réserve fédérale américaine qui compte 2300 milliards de dollars en mai 2009.

Aux USA (statistique Z1 de la FED), la masse de dette atteint désormais 52592 milliards de $, ce qui représente la somme … de 700 000$ par ménage standard (un couple avec deux enfants), ou encore 370% du PIB US (le pic associé à la crise de 1929 était de 160% environ en début de crise, et un peu plus de 260% après 3 ans de crise à cause de l’effondrement du PIB associé).”

Nota: Désolé pour ceux qui pourchassent un “néo-libéralisme”, mais les faits et les chiffres sont implacables, nous vivons bien actuellement dans des économies plus étatisées que jamais…à une notable exception près, la Chine, dont le poids de l’état est passé de 90% à moins de 40% au cours des dernières décennies, et qui a réalisé la plus forte expansion économique de toutes les grandes économies.

Selon l’agence Bloomberg, l’ensemble des dépenses, prêts et garanties offerts par l’Etat américain atteignent désormais les 12.800 milliards de dollars (PIB des USA : 14 000 milliards). 31/03/2009. [...] On apprend ainsi que la situation des prêts immobiliers est devenue incontrôlable avec 10 % de défaillances et surtout 694 056 procédures de saisies en cours au 4ème trimestre 2008. Vous pouvez d’ailleurs avoir le résumé de ces chiffres en consultant le tableau page 13 du rapport dont voici le lien : [...] D’ailleurs, un américain sur dix reçoit une aide en bons d’alimentation (Reuters du vendredi 3 avril) et 5,1 millions d’emplois ont été détruits depuis le début de la récession selon le journal Le Monde du vendredi 3 avril. [...] Paul Krugman, prix nobel d’économie : « J’ai l’impression qu’elle [l’administration, ndlr] ne cherche qu’à gagner du temps au lieu d’admettre la réalité des pertes essuyées par les banques et de faire ce qui est nécessaire pour nettoyer ce foutoir. » Il ose même une phrase digne d’un théoricien du complot : «Le problème est que nous avons une administration qui va chercher conseil chez ceux qui ont créé cette crise». Source : Libé du 15 avril 2009. [...]

Il faut le rappeler, le dollar était à l’époque convertible en or (35 dollars l’once). Jacques Rueff, économiste, et surtout clairvoyant, avait alors déclaré que c’était pour le monde « le secret d’un déficit sans larmes. » Puis, par étapes successives, le dollar a cessé d’être convertible en or (1971), pire encore, il est devenu « flottant » (1973), c’est-à-dire déconnecté de toute réalité économique. [...] Or, le 18 mars 2009 (« le jour où le dollar est mort ») la FED (banque centrale US) a décidé de racheter des bons du trésor, ce qui revient à monétiser la dette. [...] J’ai expliqué dans mes quatre précédents articles que les monnaies nationales étaient en phase avancée de destruction (dollar, livre sterling par exemple) et que de nouvelles monnaies continentales (dollar nord-américain, Acu pour l’Asie, Sucre pour l’Amérique du sud, l’Arabo lancé par le Conseil de Coopération du Golfe), virtuelles dans un premier temps, étaient en train de naître. [...]

Le 19 février 2009, le quotidien du peuple (People’s Daily) annonçait que « la Chine autorisait les pays en déficit commercial avec elle à produire des obligations en yuans (et non en dollars). » Elle a de plus signé un accord avec l’Argentine lui permettant de payer en yuan et « a conclu des accords d’échange de devises d’une valeur totale de 95 milliards de dollars, avec la Malaisie, la Corée du Sud, Hong Kong, la Biélorussie, l’Indonésie, et maintenant l’ Argentine ». Source : China Economic Review du 31 Mars 2009. L’AFP, le 26 mars, a affirmé « qu’un groupe d’experts de l’ONU dirigé par l’économiste américain Joseph Stiglitz a préconisé un nouveau système monétaire international pour remplacer l’actuel, basé sur le dollar. [...]

Georges Soros a confirmé : « la monnaie américaine pourrait finalement être remplacée comme devise mondiale de réserve, éventuellement par les Droits de tirage spéciaux (DTS) du Fonds monétaire international ». Source : Reuters le 06 avril 2009. [...] Les DTS ont été créés en 1966 par le FMI en complément des réserves officielles des pays membres, c’est un droit qui permet de « tirer » des devises. Les DTS sont déterminés en fonction d’un panier de valeur de 4 monnaies : le dollar, l’euro, le yen et la livre sterling. Il manque donc le yuan et le rouble. Or, le 28 mars 2009, l’agence Reuters nous apprend que « la Russie est favorable à une extension du droit de tirage spécial (DTS) du Fonds monétaire international afin qu’il inclue le rouble, le yuan et l’or. » Il faut rappeler que de par son fonctionnement, le droit de tirage spécial favorise celui qui fournit les liquidités : la Chine devrait donc logiquement devenir un acteur majeur de cet instrument monétaire. [...] Ce système est appelé à être provisoire et comme l’Ecu, monnaie virtuelle qui s’est transformée en euro, nous aurons dans un premier temps des monnaies continentales (Sucre, Acu, etc) qui deviendront réelles pour, au final, être regroupées au sein d’une monnaie unique mondiale dont plusieurs noms circulent (Global, Phoenix, Terra). [...]

Concernant l’arrestation de Bernard Madoff. Il est très étonné lui-même des accusations de monstre lancées contre lui. Sa ligne de défense est simple et elle devrait vous en dire long sur notre système économique. Il a ainsi déclaré que l’économie mondiale était une vaste pyramide de Ponzi et qu’il ne comprenait pas pourquoi il devenait le bouc émissaire d’un système alors qu’il en était le révélateur. Ce système qui fonctionne sur la dette et la captation par quelques-uns de l’essentiel des intérêts impose au fil des ans d’élargir la base de crédit. Et, lorsque l’on commence à prêter à des gens qui ne peuvent rembourser, le système s’écroule. Le chômage va donc exploser, les retraites se transformeront en revenu minimum, la sécurité sociale sera réservée à quelques-uns. Dans les pays pauvres, on mourra de faim par millions. La solution classique consiste à provoquer un gros conflit mondial, ce qui permet de se débarrasser des chômeurs et des stocks d’armes et ensuite de reconstruire. Paul Jorion, sur son blog, réfléchit à l’élaboration d’une constitution pour l’économie qui se ferait sur le net et accessible par tous comme Wikipedia…

Selon les derniers chiffres, les autorités américaines ont consacré 12 000 milliards de dollars à des subventions, des gratuités et autres renflouages.” Source par Bill Bonner Lundi 16 Mars 2009 La Chronique Agora.

“Rien qu’aux Etats-Unis, la facture de la bataille contre la correction se monte à 14 000 milliards de dollars environ, d’après nos calculs. Cela ne comprend pas seulement les sommes réellement dépensées… mais également les garanties de la Fed et les rachats d’actifs toxiques“Bill Bonner Vendredi 03 Avril 2009 La Chronique Agora.

“Je ne connais pas les chiffres pour l’Angleterre mais le PIB étant 5 fois moindre, on peut supposer environ 2000 milliards de dollars car les problèmes sont identiques.” Gilles Bonafi

Selon l’AFP, le conseil de la Banque centrale européenne (BCE) va acheter pour environ 60 milliards d’euros d’obligations “sécurisées” en euro, a annoncé Jean-Claude Trichet. Les modalités techniques de ces achats seront dévoilées après la prochaine réunion du 4 juin. Lors de la réunion du 07/05/2009, le conseil a décidé d’abaisser d’un quart de point le principal taux directeur, tombé à un nouveau plancher historique de 1%.

La BCE suit le chemin pris par ses grandes homologues américaine et britannique qui ont déjà lancé des programmes d’achats de titres de créance pour stimuler leurs économies.

Certes, la mondialisation favorise les plus forts qui refusent de payer des taxes. Par contre, les plus faibles sont moins mobiles et subissent les lois. Mais qui est capable d’avoir une vision globale d’un marché aujourd’hui ? personne. C’est totalement impossible car un volume significatif de titres et de dérivés (swaps ou futures) circulent ou sont détenus dans des places “off shore” (paradis fiscaux).

G20: 2 points on the agenda

Interrogée sur l’échec d’un placement de bons du trésor anglais auprès des investisseurs cette semaine, Angela Merkel a répondu : « Cela nous montre que les états ne peuvent pas éternellement vivre à crédit”. [...] « It isn’t just that the banks took over too many risks. Governments allowed them to do so by neglecting to set the necessary [financial market] rules and, for instance in the US, by increasing the money supply too much”

Le 02 avril, en plein G20, les USA ont changé leurs normes comptables ce qui va permettre d’après Robert Willens, un ancien directeur de Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. d’améliorer le bilan des banques de 20 %. Un « miracle » a donc eu lieu qui permet désormais aux entreprises financières de fixer elles-mêmes le prix de leurs produits financiers (car il n’y a plus d’acheteurs) et tout cela sous la contrainte et les menaces. Arthur Levitt, ancien président de la SEC a dit :

« ce qui me perturbe le plus à propos de l’initiative de la FASB (l’organisme qui fixe les règles en matière de comptabilité, à l’origine de la nouvelle réglementation) est qu’elle semble résulter de menaces indignes de membres du Congrès, qui sont redevables à des représentants d’entreprises ». Source : Bloomberg du 29 mars 2009 : « Mark-to-Market Lobby Buoys Bank Profits 20% as FASB May Say Yes ».

Les manipulations à la baisse des cours du marché des matières s’observe particulièrement sur les métaux précieux (or et argent). Les leaders de ce marché savent acheter de gros volumes en lissant les cours de bourse grâce aux futures. Comme exemple, Buffett aurait acheté en octobre 2008 1 million d’once d’argent (un équivalent supérieur aux millions de pièces de 5 francs en Argent frappées dans les années 60 en France) ; tandis que le cours officiel de l’Argent restait stable (cours à -20% depuis janvier 2008 !). Force est d’observer que l’Inde détient parmi les plus fortes réserves d’Argent depuis les années 80.

The main argument of the commentary to be that “four or fewer traders controlling 72.5% or more of either the long side or short side of any regulated commodity futures market is a de facto manipulation.”

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